Article 2315

Title of the article

                             “THE FAMINE WAS ALL OVER THE LAND”: CHRONICLES OF THE HISTORY                                 OF FAMINE IN RUSSIA IN THE XI–XVI CENTURIES


Rogozhina Angelina Sergeevna, Candidate of historical sciences, senior lecturer, sub-department of Russian history, Orel State University (95 Komsomolskaya street, Orel, Russia),

Index UDK

94 (47).027/.046


Background. A considerable part of the Russian state has historically included a huge number of regions with very diverse climatic conditions, determining their economic specialization. The specificity of economic production was causing such socio-economic phenomena as crop failures and famine, the consequences of which caused a wave of social unrest, destabilizing the situation in the country. The aim of the work is to analyze the text of the Russian chronicles of XI–XVI centuries to identify the causes of such phenomena as crop failures and famine and the measures to combat them.
Materials and methods. The research problems were solved through studying the chronicles of such sources as the Patriarchal or Nikon’s Chronicle, the Chronicle of Ancient Years (the Laurentian list), and the First Novgorod Chronicle in old and new languages. The methodological basis of the research included the principles of historicism, objectivity and systemacy. The internal structure of the work is based in the problem-chronological order. The study used the traditional methods of histo¬rical knowledge: descriptive, comparative-historical, typological and system-structural.
Results. The main aspects of crop failures and famine as a social phenomenon in the XI–XIV centuries are discussed in article. Its causes, development and conse-quences for the population are studied. The ways of dealing with crop failures and hunger, as well as the role of the government in this process are analyzed in article.
Conclusions. The official history of the phenomenon of crop failures and famine, in the context of the social and economic history of the Russian state begins in the XI century. The formation of the rudiments of the food system, characterized by the appearance of grain trade, the issue of drawing up inventories and cash and in-kind loans as a way to deal with crop failures and famine begins in the XI–XIV centuries. However, the described chronological period is characterized by poor attention by the state to the needs of hungry people, its passive role in solving food problems.

Key words

crop failure, famine, food difficulties, grain trade, inventory, loan.

Download PDF

1. Ermolov A. S. Nashi neurozhai i prodovol'stvennyy vopros [Our crop failures and food issues]. Saint-Petersburg: Tip. V. Kirshbauma, 1909, 599 p.
2. Leshkov V. N. O narodnom prodovol'stvii v drevney Rossii [On national food supply in ancient Russia]. Moscow: Tip. V. Got'e, 1854, 62 p.
3. Skibinskiy M. A. O sisteme narodnogo prodovol'stviya [On the system of national food supply]. Saint-Petersburg, 1893, 58 p.
4. Kablukov N. A. Prodovol'stvennoe delo [Food supply]. Moscow, 1891–1892.
5. Kartavtsev E. E. Vestnik Evropy [European bulletin]. 1892, vol. 4.
6. Savich G. G. Sbornik pravil po obespecheniyu narodnogo prodovol'stviya [The code of rules of national food supply]. Saint-Petersburg: Tip. Ministerstva vnutrennikh del, 1900–1903, vol.3,iss.1,456p.;iss.2,78p.;iss.3,137p.
7. Sazonov G. P. Obzor deyatel'nosti zemstv po narodnomu prodovol'stviyu (1865–1892 gg.) [Review of zemstvos’ national food supply performance (1865–1892)]. Saint-Peters¬burg: Izdanie Khoz. departamenta Ministerstva vnutrennikh del, 1893, vol. I, 511 p.
8. Anfimov A. M. Krest'yanskoe khozyaystvo evropeyskoy Rossii. 1881–1904 [Peasant economy in European Russia. 1881–1904]. Moscow: Nauka, 1980, 239 p.
9. Simonova M. S. Problemy sotsial'no-ekonomicheskoy istorii Rossii [Problems of the Russian socioeconomic history]. Moscow, 1971.
10. Nifontov A. S. Istoricheskie zapiski [Historical notes]. Moscow, 1968, vol. 81, pp. 216–258.
11. Man'kov A. G. Tseny i ikh dvizhenie v Russkom gosudarstve XVI v. [Prices and move-ment thereof in the Russian state in XVI century]. Moscow; Leningrad: Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1951, 274 p.
12. Anan'ich B. V., Ganelin R. Sh., Dubentsov B. B., Dyakin V. S., Potolov S. I. Krizis sa-moderzhaviya v Rossii. 1895–1917 [Crisis of autocracy in Russia. 1895–1917]. Lenin-grad: Nauka:Leningradskoe otdelenie,1984,664p.
13. Bogolepov M. A. Nastupayushchie vozmushcheniya klimata. Po istoricheskim dannym [Upcoming climate disturbance. Historical data]. Moscow: Izd-vo NK zemledeliya, 1921, 30 p.
14. Borisenkov E. P., Pasetskiy V. V. Ekstremal'nye prirodnye usloviya v russkikh letopi-syakh XI–XVII vv. [Extreme natural conditions in Russian chronicles of XI–XVII centu-ries]. Moscow: Gidrometeoizdat, 1983, 240 p.
15. Zayonchkovskiy P. A. Krizis samoderzhaviya na rubezhe 1870–1880 godov [The crisis of the autocracy at the turn of 1870–1880's]. Moscow: Izd-vo MGU, 1964, 510 p.
16. Zhukova L. A. Zemskoe samoupravlenie i byurokratiya v Rossii [Zemstvos’ self-govern¬ment and bureaucracy in Russia]. Moscow: Khronograf, 1998, 179 p.
17. Kniga M. D. Istoriya goloda 1891–1892 gg. v Rossii: avtoref. dis. kand. ist. nauk [The history of the 1891–1892 famine in Russia: author’s abstract of dissertation to ap-ply for the degree of the candidate of historical sciences]. Voronezh, 1997, 23 p.
18. Polnoe sobranie russkikh letopisey [Complete collection of Russian chronicles]. Mos-cow, 2000, vol. 9.
19. Povest' vremennykh let (Lavrent'evskiy spisok) [Tale of Bygone Years (Laurentian co-dex)]. Saint-Petersburg: Nauka, 2007, 669 p.
20. Vernadskiy G. V. Kievskaya Rus' [Kiev Rus]. Tver: LEAN; Moscow: AGRAF, 1996, 448 p.
21. Froyanov I. Ya. Drevnyaya Rus'. Opyt issledovaniya istorii sotsial'noy i politicheskoy bor'by [Ancient Rus. Experience of researching the history of social and political strug-gle]. Moscow; Saint-Petersburg: Zlatoust, 1995, 703 p.
22. Karamzin N. M. Istoriya gosudarstva Rossiyskogo [History of the Russian state]. Mos-cow: EKSMO-Press, 2002, 1024 p.
23. Russkie letopisi [Russian chronicles]. Ryazan: Aleksandriya; Uzoroche, 2001, vol. 10, 652 p.
24. Danilov A. A. Istoriya Rossii IX–XIX vv. Spravochnye materialy [Russian history of IX–XIX centuries. Reference materials]. Moscow: VLADOS, 1997, 432 p.
25. Spasskiy I. G. Russkaya monetnaya sistema. Istoriko-numizmaticheskiy ocherk [Russian coinage. A historical-numesmatic essay]. Leningrad: Izd-vo Gosudarstvennogo Ermi-tazha, 1962, 222 p.
26. Solov'ev S. M. Istoriya Rossii s drevneyshikh vremen [Russian history from the ancient times]. 2nd ed. Saint-Petersburg: Obshchestvennaya Pol'za, 1896, vol. I–V, bk. 1, 1726 p.
27. Abramovich G. V. Ezhegodnik po agrarnoy istorii Vostochnoy Evropy [Eastern Euro-pian agrarian history yearbook]. Moscow, 1965, pp. 49–61.


Дата создания: 11.11.2015 09:38
Дата обновления: 11.11.2015 11:44